In the CNS, pros protein is nuclear in MP2 and MNB, but cortical in all others. See Map. pros RNA is transcribed in all neuroblasts, but the protein is localized to the neuroblast cortex in a cell-cycle dependent manner. The protein is then asymmetrically localized to the GMC at mitosis where it resides on the cortex for a short time after cytokinesis before being translocated into the nucleus. pros remains nuclear through the next mitosis where it is equally distributed to the two progeny neurons. It remains in the neurons for a period of time (we don't know exactly how long after mitosis each neuron turns off). pros is maintained in the nuclei of the six longitudinal glia and a small cluster of nuclei on the lateral side of the nerve cord.
In the PNS, there are severe axonal defects but no changes in gene expression noted, yet. So far, there has been no phenotype identified in the gut and Garland gland.
Homologs for prospero have been identified in mouse and C. elegans. (Oliver et al., 1993; Burglin, 1994). Protein expression in these organisms is unknown.
Originally identified in: Doe,C.Q., Chu-LaGraff,Q., Wright,D.M. and Scott,M.P. Cell 65, 451-464, 1991.
Initial GMC protein localization in: Vaessin, H., Grell, E., Wolff, E., Bier, E., Jan, L. Y. and Jan, Y. N. Cell 67, 941-953, 1991.
Additional protein localization in: Matsuzaki, F., Koizumi, K., Hama, C., Yoshioka, T. and Nabeshima, Y. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 182, 1326-1332, 1992.
More info: Chu-Lagraff, Q., Wright, D.M., McNeil, L.K. and Doe, C.Q. Development Supplement 2, 79-85, 1991.
Asymmetric protein localization in neuroblasts: Spana, E. and Doe, C. Q. Development, in press, 1995.
pros protein expression in the longitudinal glia shown in: Campbell, G., Goring, H., Lin, T., Spana, E, Andersson, S., Doe, C.Q. and Tomlinson, A. Development 120, 2957-2966, 1994.
pros interaction with abl: Gertler, F.B., Hill, K.K., Clark, M. J. and Hoffmann, F.M. Genes and Development 7, 441-453, 1993.
C. elegans pros: Burglin, T.R. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 19, 70-71, 1994.
Mouse pros, Prox1: Oliver, G., Sosa-Pineda, B., Geisendorf, S., Spana, E.P., Doe, C.Q. and Gruss, P. Mechanisms of Development 44, 3-16, 1993.
Motor axon defects: Broadie, K. and Bate, M. Nature 361, 350-353, 1993.
Longitudinal Glia defects: Jacobs, J.R. Journal of Neurobiology 24, 611-626, 1993.
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